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Published in Other Norms Written by July 17 2018 0

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) “Oro Legal” (legal gold) project management announced July 17 that toxic mercury dumping and processing has declined “significantly” among artisanal gold-mining operations in Bajo Cauca as well as Northeast Antioquia.

The agency noted that Colombia officially banned all further use of mercury in gold-mining activities as of July 15, 2018, following a five-year “transitional period” that started in 2013.

Socially responsible national and international gold miners in Colombia abolished mercury usage years ago. But some informal and criminal gold-mining operators here continue to dump toxic mercury, poisoning the environment, gold-processing workers and nearby populations.

Following the Colombian government’s mercury-phase-out transitional period, “some concerns arise regarding [the mercury-ban law’s] effectiveness,” according to USAID.

However, recent studies indicate a “significant reduction in the use of [mercury] in the Bajo Cauca Antioqueño and Northeast Antioquia mines, and there is also evidence of a decrease in [mercury vapor] emissions in the air in populated areas, as demonstrated by the comparative measurements made by USAID during the years 2016 and 2017,” according to the agency.

USAID’s “Legal Gold” study examined use of mercury in local gold mines, analyzed commercial movement of mercury, and measured mercury vapors in certain towns via a novel sampling protocol.

Samples were taken in 63 small mining production units located in Bajo Cauca and Northeast Antioquia, according to the agency.

“The mining units that received or receive accompaniment from the USAID Legal Gold program’s formalization process in the last two years have registered an approximate elimination of 7.8 tons of mercury in the department of Antioquia,” the agency reported.

“This is due to the technical assistance provided in the field and to the [artisanal miner] formalization contracts or subcontracts established between owners and small-scale miners, which obliges the latter to process their material in zero-mercury [gold-processing] plants.

“However, due to cultural and economic situations of the small miner, mercury use still persists. Comparative studies indicate that, on average, in the three types of [artisanal] mining [open-pit, alluvial and mini-dredge] in 2016, for each gram of gold produced, 14 grams of mercury were used, while in 2017 the figure dropped to 6.15 grams to process one gram of gold.,” according to USAID.

“In December 2016, in order to establish a control on the importation and commercialization of mercury and all products that contain it, the national government issued Decree 2133 of 2016, which establishes the process and allowed quota for the importation of mercury.

“Likewise, the government determined that the import quota of mercury to the country for the period from September 16, 2017 to September 15, 2020 was stipulated at two tons per year, and this should be used for activities other than mining.

“This reduction in the import quota of mercury hindered the acquisition of this metal in the different municipalities and multiplied its real price. Before the controls, a kilogram of mercury was quoted at COP$220,000 [US$76], but today this figure amounts to COP$750,000 [US$260 ],” the agency added.

As for mercury-vapor air-pollution studies, the agency took air samples in gold-trading and processing centers in six municipalities of Antioquia and three of Chocó: Segovia, Remedios, El Bagre, Caucasia, Zaragoza, Santafé de Antioquia, Quibdó, Condoto and Istmina.

Over time, the investigators discovered the emergence of new mercury-vapor hot-spots "in the perimeter areas of the town, away from shopping areas and gold purchases,” according to the agency.

“The conclusion of this monitoring is that [mercury vapor pollution] declined in urban areas, which indicates less impact on public health, but a greater dispersion was detected in peripheral areas, a situation that makes [mercury pollution] control difficult,” added Peter Doyle, USAID’s legal-gold program director.

While government controls on the importation and commercialization of mercury along with prohibition of the burning of gold-processing amalgams in residential, commercial institutional areas has helped cut such pollution, more remains to be done.

“The progress in reducing mercury has been impressive and little recognized, but it is going to reach a point where some miners do not have the culture, technology and funding sources for [mercury] elimination [and these miners] will need more support to achieve elimination,” Doyle concluded.

Published in Residency Card Written by September 29 2017 0

Colombia’s foreign ministry (Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriorores) has announced that changes to its visa regulations will take effect November 2.

In the announcement (see complete text in Spanish here: http://legal.legis.com.co/document?obra=legcol&document=legcol_74fa455ce7e44df19296af36ef78d8e8), the Ministry clarifies that it’s regrouping many different existing visa categories into three main categories: visitor (V), migrant (M) and resident (R).

While some changes are superficial -- changes of words or categories, but not meaning -- some clarifications are worth noting.

For example: “Visitors” for tourism, for investigating business opportunities, for contract negotiations and for sales representations are allowed stays of up-to-180 days, but such visitors cannot do local contract "work."

However, “visitors” attending trade shows, conferences, sporting events, artistic events, doing film productions, executing journalism assignments, occupying temporary corporate assignments (for a non-Colombia-headquartered company) and performing certain volunteer projects are allowed to “work” at those assignments or events, according to the Ministry.

Those obtaining “migrant” visas (that is, those intending to become permanent residents) who are married to a Colombian national -- or parents of a Colombian-born adopted child -- likewise can “work” in Colombia for up-to-three-years, and also can apply to become a “resident” after two years.

In addition, “migrants” that obtain a local work contract or become a partner in a commercial enterprise here can obtain a “resident” visa after five years.

For real-estate investors, “migrant” visas can be obtained by investing at least 350 minimum Colombian monthly salaries. The current Colombian minimum monthly salary -- COP$738,000 – multiplied by 350 equals COP$258 million, or about US$88,000 at current COP/USD exchange rates and current Colombian legal salary minimums.

To obtain the "migrant" visa, the real-estate investment must be accompanied by proof of free title (“certificado de libertad y tradicion del inmueble adquirido que pruebe titularidad”) as well as proof of registry of the foreign funds used for the purchase (“communicacion expedida por el Departamento de Cambios Internacionales del Banco de la Republica”).

For those seeking a “migrant” visa as a retiree, the applicant must show that a pension (such as Social Security or a private-sector pension) is at least three times the Colombian minimum monthly salary (COP$2,214,000 or about US$753). Alternatively, an applicant could get a “migrant” visa if receiving at least 10 times the minimum monthly salary (COP$7,380,000 or about US$2,510) from investments with regular payouts (such as annuities).

For “empresarios” seeking a “migrant” visa, you must show a capital investment of at least 100 minimum monthly salaries (COP$73.8 million or about US$25,000). For “independent” professionals, a “migrant” visa can be obtained  if your bank records indicate earnings of at least 10 minimum monthly salaries over the prior six months.

Real-estate investors, commercial partners, contracted workers and pensioners with “migrant” visas also can apply for “resident” visas after five years.

In addition, registered foreign direct investors (FDIs) investing at least 650 minimum monthly salaries (COP$480 million, or about US$163,000) can apply for a “resident” visa.

Foreigners married to Colombian nationals also will continue to qualify for “resident” visas, as in prior visa regulations. “Resident” visas are good for five years and are renewable.

Visa applications are now processed on-line through the Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores web-site (see: http://www.cancilleria.gov.co/en/procedures_services/visas).

After expats submit their applications, they typically make a subsequent trip to Ministry offices in Bogota to obtain their visa, although some specialist agencies and lawyers here in Medellin offer to handle that process for you.

Published in Taxes Written by February 01 2017 0

Editor’s Note: The following column was written by IRS enrolled agent and chartered financial analyst (CFA) John Ohe of Hola Expat Tax Services. Medellin Herald does not specifically endorse the author’s opinion; this column is for general information only and should not be construed as personal tax advice.

Published in Taxes Written by December 29 2016 0

Colombia’s House and Senate on December 28 voted to approve a wide-ranging tax-reform law, which won immediate approval from President Juan Manuel Santos.

Published in Taxes Written by December 28 2016 0

Editor’s Note: The following column was written by IRS enrolled agent and chartered financial analyst (CFA) John Ohe of Hola Expat Tax Services. Medellin Herald does not specifically endorse the author’s opinion; this column is for general information only and should not be construed as personal tax advice.

Published in Taxes Written by October 20 2016 0

Colombia’s Home Minister (Ministro de Hacienda) Mauricio Cardenas on October 19 finally unveiled a long-awaited, 182-pages-long tax reform proposal that would bring business and investment taxes more in-line with international standards -- and thus help Colombia attract more investment while creating more “formal” employment as well as more personal income taxes.

Published in Banking & Financial Services Written by October 14 2015 0

While a growing number of foreigners are investing in real estate or other types of businesses in metro Medellin, some have found that the process of transferring relatively large amounts of investment funds from the U.S. or other countries can be frustratingly complex, time-consuming – and even costly.

Published in Taxes Written by October 08 2015 0

Tax filing requirements and taxpaying obligations for expat residents, foreign investors, non-resident visitors and even citizens in Colombia raise many questions – which explains the demand for expert accountants and (sometimes) specialized tax lawyers here.

Published in Residency Card Written by September 28 2015 0

The soaring value of the U.S. dollar versus the Colombian peso -- combined with an ever-increasing flow of business-oriented tourism to Medellin – is spurring ever-greater interest in metro-Medellin real estate markets and other investment opportunities.

SILLETEROS PARADE 2016 by JOHN AND DONNA STORMZAND (click to enlarge)

MEDELLÍN PHOTOS by Gabriel Buitrago (click to enlarge)

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Volunteering February 20 2017 0
As the late North American philosopher A.B. Johnson once quipped, “mighty oaks from little acorns…

About Medellin Herald

Medellin Herald is a locally produced, English-language news and advisory service uniquely focused upon a more-mature audience of visitors, investors, conference and trade-show attendees, property buyers, expats, retirees, volunteers and nature lovers.

U.S. native Roberto Peckham, who founded Medellin Herald in 2015, has been residing in metro Medellin since 2005 and has traveled regularly and extensively throughout Colombia since 1981.

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