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Medellín Metro News 144

Published in Medellín Metro News Written by March 13 2019 0

Medellin-based multinational banking giant Bancolombia announced March 12 that it’s now offering companies the opportunity to rent all-electric, zero-emissions delivery trucks in Colombia’s major cities – at the same annual cost as conventional trucks.

The goal is to put into circulation 1,000 electric trucks over the next three years, replacing diesel- and gasoline-powered trucks that today are causing much of the air pollution in Medellin, Bogota and other major cities, according to Bancolombia’s “Renting Colombia” subsidiary.

Major companies in Colombia including Nutresa, Bimbo, Bavaria, Colombina and Éxito are already testing these electric trucks, in an alliance with Medellin-based electric vehicle marketer Auteco, according to Bancolombia.

The scheme enables both smaller and larger companies to rent rather than buy the trucks, at a cost of operation “equal to that of [trucks] with traditional gasoline or diesel combustion, so in this way overcoming the [initial purchase price] limitation” of electric trucks, according to Bancolombia.

Besides eliminating toxic particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, the electric trucks also slash net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions -- since most of Colombia’s electric power comes from zero-emissions hydroelectric plants.

“Launching the first [nationwide] fleet of electric trucks in Colombia responds to our commitment to do business well and sustainable,” explained Bancolombia president Juan Carlos Mora.

The vehicles being offered are local delivery trucks rated between three-to-10 tons. These are the type of trucks that are the most numerous in Colombia’s biggest cities.

Diesel-powered delivery trucks are so numerous in big cities that they cause 50% more total pollution than dump trucks, 400% more than buses and 500% more than cars, according to Bancolombia.

Hence eliminating such high-polluting vehicles would help cities including Medellin and Bogota to slash pollution that today has forced city officials to enact severe “pico y placa” driving restrictions on vehicles (alternating-day bans tied to license-plate numbers), Bancolombia noted.

Switching just 1,000 delivery trucks to zero-emission electric power would slash CO2 emissions by 24,800 tons over three years, equivalent to the CO2-removal work of 1.5 million trees, the company noted.

What's more, the latest-generation electric trucks employ new technologies that deliver 40% more power than a conventional diesel- or gasolina-powered truck, according to Auteco.

While an electric truck will consume an annual average of 11,300 kiloWatt-hours of electricity at a total cost of COP$5 million (US$1,590), an equivalent diesel truck would consume 1,200 gallons of diesel fuel and 10 gallons of lube oils, costing a total of COP$12 million (US$3,815) annually, or more than twice as much as the electric truck, Bancolombia noted.

 

Published in Medellín Metro News Written by March 07 2019 0

Medellin and its neighboring suburbs expanded “pico y placa” driving restrictions on all conventional combustion-engine cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles to nine hours daily for the week of March 2-9, because of worsening air pollution.

The only personal transport vehicles exempted from such driving restrictions are electric cars, along with Medellin’s “Metro” electrified railcar system, the expanding “Metrocable” electric-powered aerial tram system, an incipient electric-powered roadway tram system, the upcoming expansion of pure-electric “Metroplus” electric buses this year, and free zero-emissions bicycles at Metro rail stations.

What’s more, Medellin debuted its first all-electric taxicab on March 3 -- right on the heels of the debut of the “Line M” Villa Hermosa-Buenos Aires aerial tram system on February 28.

“Line M,” serving 350,000 people in northeastern districts, is the fifth aerial-tram system now operating in Medellin, with a sixth coming in a few more months.

All these moves are further signs of the upcoming conversion to zero-emissions transport modes for Medellin -- and likely for many other global cities facing similar air-pollution problems.

On the taxi front, the “Tax Belén” cab company debuted its first BYD all-electric cab this month – exempt from “pico y placa” driving restrictions.

Medellin hopes to see as many as 1,500 electric taxis over the next few years. But the relatively high cost of electric-car acquisition today -- compared to cheaper, conventional gasoline-powered taxis -- is the key sticking point (see Medellin Herald 09/27/2018).

“Tax Belén, one of the largest taxi companies in Medellín with more than 2,300 cabs, will be in charge of operating these public-service cars, while BYD will provide after-sales service and will contribute its experience as one of the world’s leading manufacturers of electric vehicles,” according to BYD.

“Fuel savings compared to other combustion vehicles will be approximately 70% and operating costs will be 50% lower than natural-gas or gasoline taxis,” according to BYD.

BYD claims that range-between-recharge should be around 400 kilometers, while fast-charge stations can recharge the vehicle in 90 minutes.

 

Published in Medellín Metro News Written by March 02 2019 0

Medellin-based multinational electric power giant EPM on March 1 unveiled a long-awaited consultant’s report on the causes behind the April 2018 tunnel collapse that has resulted in a three-year delay in power output from the 2.4-gigawatt “Hidroituango” hydroelectric plant in Antioquia.

“The results determine that the hypothesis of greater probability is that the obstruction of the auxiliary diversion tunnel (GAD) was due to the ‘progressive erosion of areas of weakness of the rock,’ located on the floor of the tunnel,” according to EPM, quoting the report from Norwegian-Chilean engineering consulting firm Skava Consulting.

“The zones of weakness of the rock were not treated properly, due to a deficiency in the design during the advisory stage,” which was undertaken by Ituango Generation Consortium (Integral - Solingral), according to EPM’s summary of the study.

A full copy of the study is available here: https://www.epm.com.co/site/estudio-causa-raiz-hidroituango .

“The study, which employed scientific methods, was only aimed at analyzing the root cause of a specific event: the plugging in the auxiliary diversion tunnel (GAD) structure that had been in operation since September 2017,” according to EPM.

For the Skava report, seven German, Swiss and Chilean engineers with more than 25 years experience undertook a geotechnical engineering study tapping their expertise in tunnels and dams, in rock engineering, in geology and hydrology, and in civil engineering for mining projects, metering systems and hydroelectric power plants, according to EPM.

“The auxiliary GAD diversion tunnel, which was supposed to operate temporarily, was planned from the end of 2013 -- when the original diversion tunnels were still under construction -- as an alternative that would avoid an additional delay of one year or more in the construction of the main works,” according to EPM’s summary.

When EPM took over the project via a build-own-operate-maintain-transfer (BOOMT) contract in March 2011, “the project schedule already had considerable delays, which could affect [Colombia’s] energy supply,” the company noted.

“The results of this study do not impact the recovery process of the project, in which we continue to work tirelessly. The Ituango hydroelectric project advances in its recovery and in the reduction of risks for people living below the main works.

“If everything progresses as planned, it will contribute electric power [to the national grid] from the year 2021,” EPM concluded.

Blame Games Begin

Meanwhile, a host of Colombia regulatory agencies have already begun piling-on accusations against former EPM and Hidroituango officials over the tunnel collapse and the inevitable economic impacts on consumers and the city of Medellin, which gets 25% of its annual revenues from EPM.

The three-year delay in lost power sales, plus clean-up and reconstruction costs, likely will add at least US$1 billion to the original US$4-billion to US$5-billion cost estimate for the project.

Colombia Attorney General Nestor Humberto Martinez announced February 27 that he’s planning to bring charges against former Hidroituango SA manager Luis Guillermo Gómez Atehortua, and former EPM-Ituango manager Luis Javier Vélez Duque for alleged failure to meet legal contract requirements.

In addition, Martinez announced that he’s also considering bringing charges against six other former officials connected to the project, including former EPM E.S.P. manager Juan Esteban Calle Restrepo and former Hidroituango project board members Ana Cristina Moreno Palacios, Hugo Alejandro Mora Tamayo, Juan Felipe Gaviria Gutiérrez, Jesus Arturo Aristizábal, and Maximiliano Valderrama Espinosa.

The Attorney General’s investigations focus on the project contracting process and environmental damage arising from construction and the subsequent tunnel collapse in 2018.

The Attorney General stated that preliminary investigations have discovered “improper management of solid waste” that “had a negative impact on natural resources with effects such as the quality, quantity and fluidity of the water; the erosion of the soil and the eventual instability of the mountain” adjacent to the dam.

“During the execution of the project there were contingencies that would have been rejected by those in charge of the project, who would not have had the capacity to attend them because they were prepared for a situation of lesser dimension,” according to the Attorney General.

The Attorney General’s investigation has “identified alleged inconsistencies from the beginning of the project as alleged anomalies in the pre-contractual phase and alleged deficiencies in the execution of the contracts, the studies of design and execution of the work, as well as in the additions authorized to the signing contractor,” according to Martinez.

In response to the allegations, EPM issued a statement saying that it has “acted transparently and within the framework of what the law allows. The company reiterates its permanent disposition to collaborate with the Attorney General’s Office in its investigative process, and with all the control entities that are [regulating] the Hidroituango project, as it has done so far.”

CGR Probe

A parallel investigation now underway by Colombia's Controller General of the Republic (CGR) finds that to date, the cost of the Hidroituango project is close to COP$11.5 trillion [US$3.7 billion], "of which 38.23% (more than COP$4.3 trillion/US$1.4 billion) correspond to EPM's own resources. The remaining 61.77% comes from debt with multilateral banks, equivalent to almost COP$7.1 billion [US$2.3 billion].

"The CGR will estimate the additional costs that will be generated in the future due to deficiencies and adverse situations that have arisen during the planning and development of the project," according to the agency.

EPM Insurance Policy

Subsequent to the CGR probe announcement, EPM issued a statement March 1 noting that the HidroItuango project "has an all-risk construction and assembly policy with an insured value of US$2.5 billion for material damages and US$628 million to cover the loss of profit [from lost power sales] of the first year of operation of each of the [turbine] units." However, it's still unknown whether or to what extent insurors will cover the costs of physical repairs as well as economic losses from three years' of lost power sales.

Published in Medellín Metro News Written by February 27 2019 0

Colombia’s national infrastructure agency (Agencia Nacional de Infraestructura, ANI) announced February 27 that the existing, congested two-lane highways connecting Rionegro, Llanogrande and Medellin’s Jose Maria Cordova (JMC) international airport will expand to four lanes.

The COP$118 billion (US$38 million) project will tap funds generated by the existing toll booths of the various “Devimed” highways east of Medellin, according to ANI.

“The [highway expansion] works will begin after the delivery of [adjacent] properties by the Civil Aeronautics Authority [Aerocivil], the government of Antioquia and the municipality of Rionegro,” according to ANI.

In total, 12.6 kilometers of existing two-lane highways will expand to four lanes, linking the city of Rionegro to Llanogrande and then onward to the existing roundabout adjacent to JMC airport.

The rapidly growing “oriente” region east of Medellin is about to experience even more traffic congestion when the “Tunel de Oriente” tunnel linking Medellin to JMC airport opens as expected in May or June 2019.

“The next step for the start of the work will be the delivery of the [adjacent] properties by the government of Antioquia and the Aerocivil for the construction of the 6.4-kilometer stretch between Llanogrande and the roundabout to the airport, while the municipality of Rionegro must deliver [properties adjacent to] the corresponding 6.2 kilometers between Rionegro and Llanogrande,” according to ANI.

The “Devimed” highways east of Medellin include the four-lane, divided highway between Acevedo (north Medellin, near Bello) and Santuario -- all part of the existing Medellin-Bogota highway.

Other “Devimed” toll-supported highways east of Medellin include the existing two-lane roads connecting El Retiro, La Ceja, La Union, Carmen de Viboral, Marinilla and Santuario.

Published in Medellín Metro News Written by February 08 2019 0

China-based electric vehicle (EV) manufacturer BYD on February 7 launched sales of zero-emissions EV cars at its first-ever retail showroom in Medellin – simultaneous with the Mayor’s office announcing new driving restrictions on polluting vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICEs) for the entire Medellin metro area.

BYD’s new dealership on Avenida El Poblado opposite the Premium Plaza mall comes on the heels of winning a contract to supply 64 pure electric buses to Medellin’s “Metro” public transit agency later this year (see Medellin Herald on December 29, 2018). It's a further sign that Medellin aims to slash air pollution by replacing ICE vehicles with EVs of all types, including cars, motorcycles, buses,  taxis, local-delivery vehicles, rail transit, cable-cars and trams.

“Medellín is among the places with the greatest potential in Colombia for the development of mobility with electric vehicles,” said Juan Felipe Velásquez, BYD’s commercial director for Antioquia.

“Both the municipal administration and private companies [including EV sellers Renault, Nissan and Mitsubishi] have made important bets in the development of sustainable mobility . . . The environmental [air-pollution] contingency of the metropolitan area has caused the authorities to focus their efforts on electric vehicle replacement,” he added.

Medellin also aims to expand the fleet of EV taxis, Velasquez said. “This project is very important for us as BYD, so much so that we are structuring two electric-taxi pilot [projects] with different individual public transport administration companies, which will start in a few months,” he said.

Beyond EV cars, buses and taxis, BYD “intends to exploit a high-potential market with last-mile cargo [local delivery] vehicles,” according to the company.

Meanwhile, Medellin and the regional planning agency (Area Metropolitana del Valle de Aburra, AMVA) on February 7 jointly announced greater “pico y placa” restricions on more ICE vehicles over more days -- including six days/week (rather than the current five) and sequentially hitting six of the last nine digits on license plates each day, rather than just the current four of the nine digits.

The existing “pico y placa” vehicle-driving restrictions alternately ban circulation of vehicles -- depending upon the final digits of license plates -- during morning and afternoon rush-hours. However, zero-emissions EVs are exempt from such driving restrictions.

Under the new scheme – debuting February 18 and lasting until at least March 30, the typical "dry" season for air-pollution alerts – older, higher-polluting vehicles will face even greater hours-of-operation restrictions, from 5 am to 8:30 am, and then from 4:30 pm to 9 pm Monday through Saturday, according to AMVA.

Published in Medellín Metro News Written by February 05 2019 0

Medellin-based multinational electric power giant EPM announced Tuesday, February 5, that it successfully shut the last water-intake tunnel at its giant Hidroituango hydroelectric dam, hence accelerating the planned diversion of the Cauca River over the dam’s engineered spillway by several weeks – and also enabling repairs to begin.

Temporarily, the decision means that downstream fish populations will be affected for about three days -- because the Cauca River still requires three more days to rise to the level of the engineered spillway at the top of the dam.

In a press conference, EPM general manager Jorge Londoño de la Cuesta explained that technical experts advised EPM to accelerate the closure of the water-intake tunnels in order to avoid a possible collapse of those tunnels.

Rising pressure differences between the water behind the dam and the water entering the tunnels would increase with rising water levels, threatening a potential tunnel collapse, the experts warned. Such a possible collapse would have prevented EPM from controlling water levels through the machine room, potentially wrecking the US$5 billion project and possibly endangering downstream populations.

As the last intake-gate was shut to the water tunnel, downstream water flows below the dam started falling drastically – to an estimated 35 cubic meters per second, down from around 450 cubic meters per second in recent days.

But flows should return to “summer-season” normal by next weekend (February 8-9) when the dam spillway outflow gradually restores normal Cauca River levels in the downstream area, he explained.

To reduce temporary impact on fish, EPM hired and trained 700 local fishermen to help rescue fish trapped in pools as water flow diminishes, he added.

In addition, EPM released extra water from its Porce hydroelectric dam system near Guatape, Antioquia, in order to boost river flows where the Nechi River meets the Cauca River at the town of Nechi, Antioquia, downstream from Hidroituango.

Cauca River flows have been decreasing in recent weeks because of the typically low-rainfall “summer season” of February and March. That decline in flow prompted EPM to hire local people to help rescue some 32,000 fish recently trapped in pools downstream of the dam.

Now that the final water-intake gate at the dam is closed, EPM personnel can start the process of entering the machine room, which has been flooded since last May because of an unexpected collapse in a nearby diversion tunnel. Since the dam and the spillway weren’t yet finished last year, EPM made an emergency decision to divert Cauca River water through the machine room, in order to avoid a dam collapse.

Since then, EPM and its engineering partners discovered a big hole that had opened between water-intake tunnels one and two, which lead to the machine room. The hole probably developed because of water erosion -- caused by the emergency evacuation of river water through the machine-room tunnels, according to EPM.

Now, EPM not only will have to repair damages to the machine room, but also to the water-intake tunnels damaged by erosion over the past 10 months.

The company still hopes to start-up the 2.4-gigawatt Hidroituango project by year-end 2021, which eventually would supply fully 17% of Colombia’s entire national electricity demand.

But EPM can’t be certain of the start-up schedule until it has the opportunity to inspect the damages in the machine room and the tunnels.

The city of Medellin gets nearly 25% of its entire annual budget from city-owned EPM. So, restoration and recovery of the Hidroituango project will be crucial to city finances in the coming decades.

Published in Medellín Metro News Written by January 24 2019 0

The just-concluded, 31st annual “Colombiatex” textile and clothing trade show at Medellin’s Plaza Mayor convention center here generated an estimated US$481 million in sales expectations for 2019 – an estimated 26% jump over 2018 indications, according to show organizer Inexmoda.

Speaking to an overflow crowd of national and international journalists here January 24, Inexmoda president Carlos Eduardo Botero cited unusually heavy trade-show traffic starting from the first day of the three-day show.

In all, 22,482 people from 52 countries – including 14,424 buyers -- attended this year’s show, which occupied the entire Plaza Mayor facilities, spilling out into tents temporarily set-up in adjacent parking and staging areas.

That strong first day was a big indicator that Colombia’s textile and clothing industries – principally located in Medellin and Antioquia – are indeed recovering from the 2017 economic recession, Botero said.

Of the 508 companies with trade-show booths here this year, 61% were Colombian nationals (326 in total), with Antioquia dominating at 48%, followed by Cundinamarca/Bogota with 42%.

Of the 208 international exhibitors, 21% were from India, followed by Brazil (20%), Spain (13%), Italy (9%) and the USA (6%), he said.

Among the USA exhibitors was export trade specialist Cotton USA, a major show sponsor. According to the group, sales of U.S. cotton fibers to Colombian textile and clothing manufacturers had dropped sharply year-on-year during the 2017 recession. But 2018 preliminary data indicate a rebound, especially in the specialty “open-end” threads favored by Colombian manufacturers for certain blouses and higher-quality clothes.

Of the projected sales resulting from this year's show, 42% were for textiles, 20% for machinery, 15% for supplies, 8% in threads and fibers and 4% in high-tech systems, according to Inexmoda.

Botero added that the average sales tickets rose year-on-year, thanks to stronger economic indicators and also because of 1,300 specially organized, prearranged conferences between sellers and buyers.

Inexmoda, Colombia trade promotion agency ProColombia and the Medellin Mayor’s Office also organized a separate trade round for 65 international buyers, meeting with 170 Colombian sellers, focused mainly upon sportswear, work clothes, underwear and swimwear. Among the buyers: U.S.-based global entertainment giant Disney.

An additional group of 126 first-time Colombiatex buyers -- from 21 countries enjoying free-trade or low-tariff agreements with Colombia -- also enjoyed special access to national sellers, according to ProColombia vice-president Juliana Villegas.

A parallel “knowledge fair” organized by Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) at the adjacent Teatro Metropolitano featured 22 conferences attended by 8,470 in-person and another 7,719 via streaming in cooperation with local TV station TeleMedellin. An additional 300 persons attended six other workshops here on practical aspects of fashion and marketing.

Meanwhile, a related “tendencies forum” included 11 expert sessions on the latest trends in textiles, accessories and denimwear, attended by another 2,000, while a “graphic arts market” special section featured the work of 21 Colombia graphic artists involved in novel fashion design.

Among the more unusual technologies displayed at this year’s show was a computerized scheme developed by Brazil-based Audaces, which employs “avatar” three-dimensional “virtual mannequins,” tied to computer-driven, customized clothing production.

The system aims to enable customers to enter a retail store, get fitted there for an “avatar” computerized body representation, then – using an in-store computer and screen -- choose from a pre-determined variety of styles, designs, colors and specifications for clothing, as Audaces international sales manager Eduardo Lopez explained to Medellin Herald.

This scheme could produce a final product at the factory in as few as 20 minutes, although delivery to the final customer would take more time -- perhaps a couple of days, and possibly involving home-delivery. Rollout of the complete system at Colombian retail stores hasn't yet happened, but it could become an attractive marketing scheme especially for larger chain retailers.

Several other novel companies here were promoting environmentally-friendly textiles (including organic cotton), which reduce impacts to water supplies from field-to-factory, as well as during subsequent clothes-washing cycles.

Another group of “Origin Colombia” companies were promoting products made-locally and-marketed-internationally, while a “private sale” section at the show featured the latest work of top local designers.

Published in Medellín Metro News Written by January 22 2019 0

Colombia President Ivan Duque announced January 22 at the World Economic Forum summit in Davos, Switzerland, that Medellin just won a world-wide competition to launch the first “Fourth Industrial Revolution” research center in all of Latin America.

Over the next 18 months, the initial research projects at the center will involve artificial intelligence (AI); the so-called “internet of things;” and “blockchain” technology (used to store and transfer information in a decentralized and secure manner).

Medellin’s “Ruta N” high-tech hosting center is already involved in projects involving these three areas, along with Colombia's Universidad Nacional, ViveLab Bogotá and Alianza Caoba (Bogota), the president noted.

According to Ruta N, the center initially will focus on three work areas:

1. Increase the national government's use of artificial intelligence to combat money laundering, improve tax collections and reduce contraband. "This would open opportunities for local entrepreneurs to develop security technologies that enhance the use of data such as images, videos and sensors as probative material in criminal cases," according to Ruta N.

2. Enable the creation of technologies to improve mobility. This would include development of projects to optimize bus routes; encourage the use of public transport by improving travel times, safety and quality; reduce pollution  by increasing the use of shared vehicles; generate information in real time for public transport users to increase the movement of people; and optimize the network of local traffic lights.

3. Maintain the balance between privacy and the productive use of personal data. "One of the most interesting projects in this regard plans to use blockchain, one of the technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, to organize property-appraisal archives and encourage the transparent management of data related to the value and the traceability of property ownership," according to Ruta N. 

Colombia is the first country in the Spanish-speaking world to host such a center, joining first-wave host countries USA, Japan, China and India. Israel, South Africa, United Arab Emirates and Norway are joining Colombia in this second wave, according to the World Economic Forum (WEF).

The centers are cooperative endeavors between the private sector, government and academia, according to WEF.

According to José Manuel Restrepo, Colombia’s Minister of Commerce, Industry and Tourism, the centers open new avenues to obtain “disruptive” technologies that can boost industrial efficiency and competitiveness.

“We have a challenge to create a regulatory pathway to improve the potential for accelerated development of local, regional and global technology,” Minister Restrepo added.

Medellin Mayor Federico Gutiérrez added that the Fourth Industrial Revolution research projects could trigger "exponential" economic growth, generating "equity and opportunities for all sectors of society.”

Medellin’s winning bid to host the new center came about thanks to the help of the Colombia national government, the Interamerican Development Bank (IDB), Ruta N and Agencia de Cooperación e Inversión de Medellín y el Área Metropolitana (ACI), Gutierrez added.

According to WEF founder Klaus Schwab, the Fourth Industrial Revolution will combine advanced digital, physical and biological technologies, accelerating global industrial, social and economic changes.

Published in Medellín Metro News Written by January 05 2019 1

Spain-based Grupo Globalia announced January 4 that its Air Europa airline subsidiary will launch three-times-a-week nonstop service between Medellin and Madrid starting June 1.

The company will employ new Boeing 787-9 “Dreamliner” jets, which can cut 40 minutes off flying time compared to competing jets on the same routes, according to Globalia.

Service to and from Medellin will be offered Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, offering new competition to Iberia’s and Avianca's existing nonstop flights between Medellin and Madrid.

Fare Comparisons

Air Europa was quoting a COP$2 million (US$626) fare for round-trip nonstop Medellin (MDE)-Madrid(MAD)-MDE for flights starting June 1. Iberia meanwhile was quoting COP$2.13 million (US$668) if including two pieces of luggage in the plane's belly, or no belly luggage (just carry-on) for COP$1,84 million (US$576) for June nonstop RT flights.

As for Avianca's June flights, it was quoting non-stop MDE-MAD-MDE (but not on same days as Air Europa nor Iberia) at COP$2,673,150 (US$848) including taxes and surcharges; fares for flights originating in Colombia  include the airport tax.

From its Madrid hub, Air Europa offers flights to 16 European destinations as well as 22 cities in Spain, according to the company.

Medellin’s international airport (Jose Maria Cordova, JMC) also offers other nonstop international flights to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, New York, Orlando, Mexico City, Cancun, El Salvador, Panama, Buenos Aires, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, plus seasonal service to Dominican Republic, Aruba and Curazao.

JMC processed 8 million passengers through its domestic and international terminals during 2018.

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Medellin Herald is a locally produced, English-language news and advisory service uniquely focused upon a more-mature audience of visitors, investors, conference and trade-show attendees, property buyers, expats, retirees, volunteers and nature lovers.

U.S. native Roberto Peckham, who founded Medellin Herald in 2015, has been residing in metro Medellin since 2005 and has traveled regularly and extensively throughout Colombia since 1981.

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